You’ve seen his art before on tumblr, in google search gif sets (where I found some of these images) and facebook, but you likely don’t know the author of the art because people fail to give artists credit. Tsiaras’ work pops up on my dash constantly and has never been sourced as far as I’ve seen it. So here you go, tumblr. Meet the artist. Learn more in the links provided below.
"Alexander Tsiaras, Founder, Editor-in-Chief and CEO of TheVisualMD, has been called a "Digital Age Leonardo da Vinci". He is a technology innovator, whose roots are based in his art and science photojournalism background. Tsiaras has developed cutting edge scientific imaging software that enables him to scan and record the human body at every stage; from a single cell at the moment of conception, through the biological development of man and woman and he tells compelling stories of wellness and prevention with them. His images simply and compellingly explain health and illness in terms that anyone can understand. Most importantly, they give you a visual map to plan your own optimal Health!"
(Source: Alexander Tsiaras)
Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome (HLHS)
HLHS is exactly what it sounds like: the left sided structures of the heart are hypoplastic or underdeveloped. While the exact features can vary between patients (HLHS variants), typically HLHS describes 6 defects.
- Mitral valve atresia
- Severe aortic valve stenosis
- Hypoplastic left ventricle
- Atrial septal defect (ASD)
- Hypoplastic ascending aorta
- Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)
Mitral valve atresia. The mitral valve allows blood between the left atrium and the left ventricle. In atresia, the mitral valve does not open. Blood cannot enter the left ventricle, causing the left ventricle to become severely underdeveloped.
Severe aortic valve stenosis. The aortic valve allows blood into the aorta from the left ventricle. Stenosis means the valve does not open completely. This (combined with mitral valve atresia and left ventricular hypoplasia), means blood cannot enter the aorta where it normally does. Instead, it bypasses the ascending aorta and enters near the aortic arch through the PDA. This decreased blood flow causes the ascending aorta to become severely underdeveloped.
Hypoplastic left ventricle. Normally, the left ventricle is the strongest in the heart. It pumps blood out through the aorta into the body (systemic circulation). When the ventricle become hypoplastic, it cannot adequately supply the body with oxygenated blood. This is why HLHS is referred to as a single ventricle defect: the right ventricle is the only effective pumping chamber in the heart.
Atrial septal defect. An atrial septal defect is a hole between the atria of the heart. This allows blood to be shunted between them, bypassing the left ventricle and entering the right ventricle. The right ventricle is now responsible for pumping blood to both the body and the lungs. As you might expect, this causes oxygenated and deoxygenated blood to become mixed together.
Hypoplastic ascending aorta. Because the ascending aorta is underdeveloped, the surgery for HLHS involves constructing a new aorta from the base of the pulmonary artery (one step of the Norwood procedure, the initial surgery for HLHS).
Patent ductus arteriosus. This isn’t technically a defect, as all babies normally have a PDA that closes shortly after birth. I feel it’s worth noting, though, as the PDA will need to be kept open in babies with HLHS. The PDA is a connection between the pulmonary artery and aorta. When blood is pumped from the right ventricle into the pulmonary artery, the PDA allows some of it to flow into the aorta as well. This is the only way blood is able to enter systemic circulation. Life is dependent upon the PDA in this defect, and prostaglandin must be infused to keep it open until surgery can be performed.
Surgery for HLHS is initiated within the first few weeks after birth, as this defect is incompatible with life without it. Surgeries typically occur in stages as the heart matures. The first being the Norwood procedure, followed by the Glenn procedure and the Fontan. It should be noted that none of these surgeries can create a “normal” heart, but can redirect blood flow so that the body is perfused much more effectively.
Delaying Puberty: Reviewing a Common Therapy that Puts Early Maturation on Hold
Between iPhone-toting 6 year olds and teenagers with online dating profiles, it seems as though kids are getting older, younger. But what if they actually are? Over the past 20 years, studies have shown that the rates of children starting puberty before ages 8 or 9 is on the rise.
Mitchell Geffner, MD, investigator at The Saban Research Institute of Children’s Hospital Los Angeles (CHLA), reviewed this phenomenon, known as precocious puberty, and a common therapy in a recent paper published in Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews.